Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
An abdominal aortic aneurysm, also called AAA or triple A, is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the aorta (the largest artery in the body) resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning greater than 50 percent of the normal diameter (width).
Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The glands become clogged, leading to pimples and cysts.
Acoustic neurinoma, also referred to as acoustic neuroma or vestibular schwannoma, is a non-cancerous tumor that may develop from an overproduction of Schwann cells that press on the hearing and balance nerves in the inner ear.
Acromegaly is a disorder of the pituitary gland which produces excess growth hormones and thus results in excessive growth, first in the hands and feet, as soft tissue begins to swell.
Actinic Keratosis (A Precancerous Condition)
Actinic keratosis, also known as a solar keratosis, is a scaly or crusty bump that arises on the skin surface.
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the breathing tubes (airways) that are called bronchi, which causes increased production of mucus and other changes.
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the blood in which too many lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced by the bone marrow and by organs of the lymph system.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood in which too many granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced in the bone marrow.
Acute Spinal Cord Injury
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic injury that either results in a bruise (also called a contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (called a transection) in the spinal cord.
An adjustment disorder is defined as an emotional or behavioral reaction to an identifiable stressful event or change in a person’s life that is considered maladaptive or somehow not an expected, healthy response to the event or change.
Adrenal Tumors / Pheochromocytoma
Tumors of the adrenal glands can cause many problems by excess secretion of certain adrenal-produced hormones, most often resulting in high blood pressure, which can be extreme.
African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness)
African trypanosomiasis is a disease carried by the tsetse fly. There are two types of the disease: West African trypanosomiasis causes a chronic infection lasting years, and East African trypanosomiasis causes acute illness lasting several weeks.
Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease
Alcohol-induced liver disease, as the name implies, is caused by excessive consumption of alcohol and is a common, but preventable, disease.
Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. Alcoholic hepatitis is a complex problem and is a precursor to chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.
Rhinitis is a reaction that occurs in the nose when airborne irritants (allergens) trigger the release of histamine. Histamine causes inflammation and fluid production in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.
Allergies are among the most common heath problems, with more than 50 million people afflicted with asthma, seasonal hay fever, or other allergy-related conditions each year.
Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).
Alzheimer’s Disease (Condition)
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that occurs when nerve cells in the brain die, often resulting in symptoms such as impaired memory, thinking and behavior.
Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by absent menstrual periods for more than three monthly menstrual cycles.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Lou Gehrig’s Disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurological disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain.
Analgesic nephropathy is a chronic kidney disease that gradually leads to end-stage renal disease and the need for permanent dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Anemia of Folate Deficiency
Folate deficiency is the lack of folic acid (one of the B vitamins) in the blood, which can cause a type of anemia known as megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia.
There are many types of anemias that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.
An aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning greater than 50 percent of the normal diameter
Angina pectoris (or simply angina) is recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood and oxygen.
An ankle sprain is an injury to the foot’s ligaments in the ankle.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis that affects the spine.
Aphasia is a language disorder caused by damage in a specific area of the brain that controls language expression and comprehension, and leaves a person unable to communicate effectively with others.
Aplastic anemia occurs when the bone marrow produces too few red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, making the patient susceptible to infection and making it more difficult for blood to clot.
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a finger-like portion of the large intestine that generally hangs down from the lower right side of the abdomen.
Arrhythmias are heart rhythm disorders that may originate in the atria (the receiving chambers of the heart) or the ventricles (the pumping chambers of the heart).
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are characterized by pain, swelling, and limited movement in joints and connective tissues in the body.
Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory disease in which the airways become sensitive to allergens (any substance that triggers an allergic reaction).
Asthma and Children
Approximately 6.5 million children have been diagnosed with asthma according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Asthma is one of the most common, serious, chronic diseases among children, accounting for 14 million absences from school each year.
Ataxia causes a failure of muscle control in the arms and legs which may result in a lack of balance, coordination and possibly a disturbance in gait.
Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T)
Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare childhood disease that affects the nervous system and some other body systems.
Atherosclerosis is a thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery.
Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
Atopic dermatitis, also called eczema, is a hereditary and chronic skin disorder that causes a person’s skin to itch, turn red and flake. It mostly affects infants or very young children.
Atrial fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia where the electrical signals in the atria (the two small chambers of the heart) are fired in a very fast and uncontrolled manner.
Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.
Autistic disorder (also called autism; more recently described as “mindblindedness”) is a neurological and developmental disorder that usually appears during the first three years of life.
Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. In autoimmune hepatitis, the body’s own immune system destroys liver cells.
Avascular necrosis is a disease that may cause bone or joint collapse as a result of loss of blood supply to the bone due to injury or other causes (such as long-term use of certain medications).
BSE (‘Mad Cow Disease’) and nvCJD
“Mad Cow Disease” actually refers to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a disease first described in 1996 – in cattle, which is related to a disease in humans called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).
Back and Neck Pain
Low back pain can range from mild, dull, annoying pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the lower back that restrict mobility. Neck pain is pain that occurs in the area of the seven cervical vertebrae in the neck area.
Baldness, also known as alopecia, is hair loss, or absence of hair.
Barrett’s esophagus is a condition in which normal cells that line the esophagus turn into cells not usually found in humans called “specialized columnar cells.”
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal cell cancer, sometimes called non-melanoma skin cancer, usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or nodule on the head, neck, or hands. Occasionally, these nodules appear on the trunk of the body, usually as flat growths.
Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)
Basal cell nevus syndrome is caused by a tumor suppressor gene, called PTCH, located on chromosome 9. Mutations in this gene may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.
Behavior disorders include mental health problems with a focus on behaviors that both identify emotional problems and create interpersonal and social problems for children and adolescents in the course of their development.
Bell’s palsy is an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis that begins suddenly and worsens over three to five days. This condition results from damage to the 7th (facial) cranial nerve, and pain and discomfort usually occurs on one side of the face or head.
Benign Bone Tumors
There are many benign bone tumors that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.
Benign Prostate Problems
Benign prostate problems are clinical conditions of the prostate gland that are not cancer, such as prostatism (any prostate condition that interferes with urine flow), prostatitis (an inflamed prostate gland), prostatalgia (pain in the prostate gland) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate).
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
BPH (also referred to as benign prostatic hypertrophy) is a condition in which the prostate gland becomes very enlarged and may cause problems associated with urination.
Beta Thalassemia (Cooley’s Anemia)
There are multiple types of this form of anemia, ranging from those with few or no symptoms to severe condition impacting major organs and requiring frequent blood transfusions.
Biliary Cirrhosis / Bile Duct Cancer
Biliary cirrhosis is a rare form of liver cirrhosis, caused by disease or defects of the bile ducts.
Binge Eating Disorder
Binge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or bingeing.
Birthmarks are areas of discolored and/or raised skin that are apparent at birth or within a few weeks of birth. Birthmarks are made up of malformed pigment cells or blood vessels.
Bladder cancer occurs when there are abnormal, cancerous cells growing in the bladder.
Bleeding / Clotting Disorders
Abnormalities in platelets (which regulate clotting of the blood), or defects in the blood vessels themselves, can lead to excessive bleeding. Similarly, excess clotting can cause problems by obstructing veins and arteries.
There are many Hematology & Blood Disorders that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.
There are different types of bone cancers, which are typically defined as a malignant (cancerous) tumor of the bone that destroys normal bone tissue.
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself, or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain (metastasize). Brain tumors may be classified as either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), depending on their behavior.
Breast cancer is a condition in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply without control to form a tumor.
Breast Cancer in Men
Breast cancer in men is a rare condition in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply without control to form a tumor.
Breast Infections and Inflammations
The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis, which causes a woman’s nipples to become cracked and sore when she is breastfeeding. Nonlactational mastitis is similar to lactational mastitis but occurs in nonlactating women.
Bruxism is the term that refers to an incessant grinding and clenching of the teeth, unintentionally, and at inappropriate times.
Bulimia nervosa, usually referred to as bulimia, is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) and usually followed by purging (self-induced vomiting), misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications that cause increased production of urine, fasting, or excessive exercise to control weight.
Calluses and Corns
Calluses are protective pads made up of the thickened upper layer of skin due to repeated rubbing of the area. Corns are small calluses that develop on the top of the toes due to pressure or rubbing against shoes or other toes.
Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)
Candidiasis, sometimes called moniliasis or a yeast infection, is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and/or mucous membranes.
Cardiac sarcoma is a type of tumor that occurs in the heart. Cardiac sarcoma is a primary malignant (cancerous) tumor.
Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle condition that occurs when the damaged heart does not effectively pump blood.
Carotid Artery Disease
Carotid artery disease, also called carotid artery stenosis, occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become narrowed.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which the median nerve is compressed as it passes through an opening from the wrist to the hand called the carpal tunnel.
Cat Scratch Disease
Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva.
Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine because of a sensitivity to gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. This hereditary disorder interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food.
Cellulitis is a deep bacterial infection of the skin.
A cerebral aneurysm (also called an intracranial aneurysm or brain aneurysm) is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain, resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning. Because there is a weakened spot in the artery wall, there is a risk for rupture (bursting) of the aneurysm.
If abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix spread deeper into the cervix, or to other tissues or organs, the disease is then called cervical cancer, or invasive cervical cancer.
A painful irritation of the cervix, cervicitis often lasts several months or longer, sometimes occurring after childbirth or use of oral contraceptives.
Chest Pain / Heart Attack Symptoms
A heart attack, or myocardial infarction, occurs when one of more regions of the heart muscle experience a severe or prolonged decrease in oxygen supply caused by blocked blood flow to the heart muscle.
Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease, usually associated with childhood. The disease is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Transmission occurs from person-to-person by direct contact or through the air.
Cholangitis is an inflammation of the bile duct system that is usually related to a bacterial infection. The bile duct system is the drainage system that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the area of the small intestine called the duodenum. The infection may occur suddenly or may be chronic.
Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall and nearby abdominal lining. Cholecystitis is usually caused by a gallstone in the cystic duct, the duct that connects the gallbladder to the hepatic duct.
Cholera is an acute, infectious disease caused by the consumption of water or food contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Sometimes called Codman’s tumor, a chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor that originates from cartilage.
Chondrosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in cartilage cells.
Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi, which results in increased production of mucus, as well as other changes.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating condition characterized by profound tiredness, regardless of bed rest.
Chronic Liver Disease /Cirrhosis
Chronic liver disease is marked by the gradual destruction of liver tissue over time. Several liver diseases fall under this category, including cirrhosis of the liver and fibrosis of the liver.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a cancer of the blood in which too many lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced by the bone marrow and by organs of the lymph system.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the blood in which too many granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced in the bone marrow.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COPD is a term that refers to a group of lung diseases that can interfere with normal breathing.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Chronic venous insufficiency occurs when the leg veins do not allow blood to travel back to the heart.
Claudication refers to limping because of pain in the thigh, calf, and/or buttocks that occurs when walking. Claudication may be a symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Cleft Lip / Cleft Palate
Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth abnormalities of the mouth and lip. Cleft palate occurs when the roof of the mouth does not completely close, leaving an opening that can extend into the nasal cavity. left lip is an abnormality in which the lip does not completely form during fetal development.
Colic is a condition in which a young infant who is otherwise well cries or is fussy several hours a day, with no apparent reason. Symptoms include a flushed face, clenched hands and tense abdomen.
Colorectal cancer is malignant cells found in the colon or rectum.
Conduct disorder is a behavior disorder, sometimes diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by antisocial behaviors which violate the rights of others and age-appropriate social standards and rules.
Congenital Hand Deformities
Congenital anomalies are deformities that are present at birth.
Congenital Heart Defects
Congenital heart defects occur when the heart or related blood vessels do not develop properly before or at birth.
Congenital Liver Defects
Congenital liver defects are rare liver diseases present at birth such as biliary atresia, when the bile ducts are absent or have developed abnormally, and choledochal cyst, a malformation of the hepatic duct that can obstruct flow of bile in infants.
Conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye,” is an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye.
Constipation is a condition in which a person has uncomfortable or infrequent bowel movements.
Contact dermatitis is a physiological reaction that occurs after skin comes in contact with certain substances.
Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease occurs when cholesterol builds up within the walls of the heart’s arteries (coronary arteries), forming what is called plaque.
The risk for breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and thyroid cancer is increased with Cowden syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder that is also associated with a number of specific noncancerous features.
Cradle Cap / Seborrheic Dermatitis
Also called cradle cap, seborrheic dermatitis in the infant is characterized by fine white scales. Seborrheic dermatitis can also occur in the diaper area, face, neck, and trunk. Seborrheic dermatitis in this age group usually clears within the first year.
Craniosynostosis (Craniofacial Anomaly)
Craniosynostosis is a condition in which sutures close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth.
Creeping eruption is a skin infection caused by hookworms, which normally are found on dogs and cats.
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that is a chronic condition that may recur at various times over a lifetime.
Croup is a disease caused by a virus that leads to swelling in the airways and problems breathing.
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal infection caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium.
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the “funny” bone in your elbow. The “funny” bone in the elbow is actually the ulnar nerve, a nerve that crosses the elbow (the ulnar nerve begins in the side of the neck and ends in the fingers).
Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a disease caused when T-lymphocytes become malignant and affect the skin. T-lymphocytes are the infection-fighting white blood cells in the lymph system that kill harmful bacteria in the body, among other things.
Cystic Fibrosis (Condition)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease characterized by an abnormality in the glands that produce sweat and mucus. It is chronic, progressive, and is usually fatal.
Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)
Cystocele is the name for a hernia-like disorder in women that occurs when the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, causing the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot develops in a vein deep in the body.
Dengue is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, with the greatest risks occurring in South Central Asia, Caribbean (except Cuba and the Cayman Islands), and Central America.
A depressive disorder is a whole-body illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts, and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, feels about himself or herself, and thinks about things.
Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. Dermatitis actually refers to a number of skin conditions that inflame the skin.
Dermatitis herpetiformis is an intensely pruritic (itchy) skin disease characterized by eruptions of clusters of small blisters or vesicles (small elevations of the skin containing fluid) and small bumps or papules (small, solid, elevations on the skin).
A deviated septum is an abnormal configuration of the cartilage that divides the two sides of the nasal cavity, which may cause problems with proper breathing or nasal discharge.
Diabetes (Type 1, 2, and Gestational)
Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including the following: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), juvenile diabetes, brittle diabetes, or sugar diabetes.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition that results from insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), a hormone that helps the kidneys and body conserve the correct amount of water.
Diabetic Foot Problems
The nerves of the feet are often affected by neuropathy or blood vessel diseases. When a diabetes patient loses sensation in the feet, sores or injuries may go unnoticed until ulcers develop.
Diabetic Nephropathy (Kidney Disease)
Nephropathy is the deterioration of the kidneys. The final stage of nephropathy is called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD.
Diabetic Neuropathy (Nerve Problems)
Diabetic neuropathy, a nerve disorder, is a complication of diabetes that can lead to problems throughout the body.
Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Eye Problems
Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that may occur in persons with diabetes as a complication.
Diaper dermatitis, commonly known as a diaper rash, is a term used to describe different skin rashes in the diapered area. The rash is usually red, scaling and, rarely, ulcerated.
Diarrheal diseases cause an abnormal looseness of stool as well as changes in stool frequency, consistency, urgency and continence.
Diphtheria is an acute bacterial disease that can infect the body in two areas: the throat (respiratory diphtheria) and the skin (skin or cutaneous diphtheria).
In the colon, some people have small pouches that bulge outward through weak spots. Diverticular disease is an inflammation or infection in the pouches, known as diverticula,
which are located in the colon.
Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. Drug-induced hepatitis is rare and is caused by toxic exposure to certain medications, vitamins, herbal remedies, or food supplements.
Dry skin is a very common skin condition, usually characterized by irritated skin and itchiness. Dry skin often worsens in the winter, when the air is cold and dry.
Dupuytren’s contracture, also called Dupuytren’s disease, usually begins with a thickening of the skin in the palm of the hand, which may develop into a hard lump or thick band that eventually could cause the fingers to contract, or pull into the palm.
Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain associated with menstruation.
Dysthymia, also known as dysthymic disorder, is classified as a type of affective disorder (also called mood disorder) that often resembles a less severe, yet more chronic form of major (clinical) depression.
The term eating disorders refers to a variety of disorders. The common feature of all the eating disorders is abnormal eating behaviors. Eating disorders are serious mental health problems and can be life threatening.
Elbow Pain and Problems
Common elbow problems include the following: arthritis -common forms of arthritis, bursitis, fractures, and injury.
Empty Sella Syndrome
Empty sella syndrome is a condition where the bony structure that houses the pituitary gland is enlarged, sometimes resulting in high fluid pressure inside the skull.
Encephalitis is an inflammation caused by a viral infection.
An enchondroma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor that originates from cartilage.
Encopresis is a problem that children four years old or older can develop due to chronic (long-term) constipation.
End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function.
Cancer of the endometrium, the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs, is a disease in which malignant (cancerous) cells are found in the endometrium. Endometrioid cancer is a specific type of endometrial cancer.
Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition involving abnormal buildup of tissue, often causing pain or infertility.
Epilepsy and Seizures
Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having seizures.
Erectile Dysfunction / Impotence
Impotence, or erectile dysfunction (ED), may result from the total inability to achieve erection, an inconsistent ability to achieve an erection, or the ability to only sustain a brief erection.
Erythema multiforme is a skin disorder characterized by symmetrical, red, raised skin areas all over the body.
Erythema nodosum is characterized by tender, red bumps, usually found on the shins. Quite often, erythema nodosum is not a separate disease, but, rather, a sign of some other disease, or of a sensitivity to a drug.
Escherichia coli 0157:H7
A particular strain of E. coli known as E. coli O157:H7 causes a severe intestinal infection in humans. It is the most common strain to cause illness in people.
Esophageal cancer is cancer that develops in the esophagus, the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach.
Ewing sarcoma is a cancer that occurs primarily in the bone or soft tissue.
Excessive Hairiness (Hirsutism)
Excessive hairiness, also known as hirsutism, is characterized by abnormal hair growth on areas of skin that are not normally hairy.
Excessive sweating, also called hyperhidrosis, can affect the entire body, but usually occurs in the palms, soles, armpits, and/or groin area.
Fibrocystic Breast Changes
Generalized breast lumpiness is known by names such as “fibrocystic disease” and “fibroid breasts.” Doctors now believe these are just part of the normal breast changes many women undergo throughout the various stages of their lives.
Fibromyalgia, also called fibrositis, is a chronic, widespread pain in muscles and soft tissues surrounding the joints throughout the body, accompanied by fatigue.
Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands due to abnormal development of fibrous tissue, often resulting in uneven growth of bones, pain, brittle bones, or bone deformity.
Fifth disease is a viral illness that results in a viral exanthem. Exanthem is another name for a rash or skin eruption.
Flat or Inverted Nipples
An effective breastfeeding baby usually has little trouble breastfeeding even if his/her mother’s nipples appear to be flatter. A less effective breastfeeder may need some time to figure out how he/she can draw the nipple into the mouth with latch-on.
Folliculitis, Boils, and Carbuncles
Folliculitis is the inflammation of hair follicles due to an infection, injury, or irritation. Boils are pus-filled lesions that are painful and usually firm. Carbuncles are clusters of boils.
A food allergy is an abnormal response of the body to a certain food.
Foot Pain and Problems
Foot pain is often caused by improper foot function. Improperly fitted shoes can worsen and, in some cases, cause foot problems.
A fracture is a partial or complete bone break. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open or closed.
Fungal Infections of the Skin
Skin fungi live in the dead, top layer of skin cells in moist areas of the body, such as between the toes, groin, and under the breasts. These fungal infections cause only a small amount of irritation.
G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency
G6PD deficiency is the lack of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (an enzyme present in red blood cells) in the blood, which can cause a type of anemia known as hemolytic anemia.
Gallbladder cancer is a rare type of cancer that starts in the inside lining cells of the gallbladder.
Gallstones form when bile stored in the gallbladder hardens into stone-like material.
Gas in the Digestive Tract
Gas in the digestive tract is created from swallowing air or bythe breakdown of certain foods by the bacteria that are present in the colon.
Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Heartburn
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder that is caused by gastric acid flowing from the stomach into the esophagus.
Gastroparesis is a stomach disorder in which the stomach takes too long in emptying its contents.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) causes its sufferers chronic and exaggerated worry and tension that seem to have no substantial cause.
Generalized Exfoliative Dermatitis
Generalized exfoliative dermatitis is a severe inflammation of the entire skin surface due to a reaction to certain drugs, or as a result of complications from another skin condition.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which the glucose level is elevated and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy in a woman who has not previously been diagnosed with diabetes.
Giant Cell Tumor
A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a large number of benign (non-cancerous) cells that form an aggressive tumor – usually near the end of the bone near a joint.
Giardiasis is an infectious diarrheal disease caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia, which can be transmitted through oral-fecal contact and by water contaminated by feces.
Glomerulonephritis is a type of glomerular kidney disease in which the kidneys’ filters become inflamed and scarred, and slowly lose their ability to remove wastes and excess fluid from the blood to make urine.
Glomerulosclerosis is the term used to describe scarring that occurs within the kidneys in the small balls of tiny blood vessels called the glomeruli.
Goodpasture syndrome is a rare, autoimmune disease that can affect the lungs and kidneys.
Gout is characterized by inflamed, painful joints due to the formation of crystal deposits at the joints.
Granuloma annulare is a chronic skin condition characterized by small, raised bumps that form a ring with a normal or sunken center.
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system.
HIV / AIDS
HIV/AIDS is a syndrome that kills cells of the immune system, impairing the body’s ability to fight infection.
Shedding 50 to 100 hairs a day is normal. When a hair is shed, it is replaced by a new hair from the same follicle and the growing cycle starts again. Scalp hair grows about one-half inch a month. As people age, the rate of hair growth slows.
Halitosis (Bad Breath)
Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by consistently odorous breath.
Hand Pain and Problems
There are many common hand problems that can interfere with activities of daily living (ADLs),
Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common form of thyroiditis.
A head injury is a broad term that describes a vast array of injuries that occur to the scalp, skull, brain, and underlying tissue and blood vessels in the head.
Head and Neck Cancer
Cancer that starts in any part of the head or neck (except the brain or eye) is called head and neck cancer.
A headache is pain or discomfort in the head or face area.
A heart attack occurs when one or more regions of the heart muscle experience a severe or prolonged lack of oxygen caused by blocked blood flow to the heart muscle.
Heart Failure (Condition)
Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough oxygenated blood to meet the needs of the body’s other organs.
Heart murmurs are additional sounds made by blood flowing through the heart as it beats. Many murmurs are harmless (innocent), but some abnormal murmurs might signal a heart problem.
Heart Valve Diseases (Condition)
The heart’s valves can have one of two malfunctions – regurgitation (when the valve does not completely close) or stenosis (a narrowing of the valve).
H. pylori is a spiral-shaped bacterium found in the stomach, which (along with acid secretion) damages stomach and duodenal tissue, causing inflammation and peptic ulcers.
Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine.
Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a condition in which the tissue on one side of the face is underdeveloped, usually affecting the ear, mouth) and jaw areas.
Hemochromatosis, also called iron overload disease, is one of the most common genetic disorder in the US.
Hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can produce them.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition that mostly affects children under the age of 10. It is often characterized by damage to the lining of blood vessel walls, destruction of red blood cells, and kidney failure.
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding, or coagulation, disorder. Children with hemophilia lack the ability to stop bleeding because of the low levels, or complete absence, of specific proteins, called “factors,” in their blood that are necessary for clotting.
Hemorrhoids are blood vessels, normally present in and around the anus and lower rectum, that have become swollen due to stretching under pressure.
Hepatitis A is a highly contagious and sometimes serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus.
Hepatitis B is a blood-borne microorganism transmitted by exposure to the hepatitis B virus through infectious body fluids.
Hepatitis C (once called non-A, non-B hepatitis) is a liver disease caused by a recently identified blood-borne virus.
Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1 / BRCA2)
Hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome is an abnormal version of the gene BRCA1 or BRCA2, which increases a person’s risk of developing various types of cancer
A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach pushes up into the chest through a small opening in the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the stomach from the chest.
High Blood Pressure / Hypertension
High blood pressure, or hypertension, directly increases the risk of coronary heart disease (heart attack) and stroke (brain attack).
A hip fracture is a break in the femur (thigh bone) of the hip joint.
The following are some of the most common hip problems: arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, and hip pointer.
Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system.
Hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating that can affect the entire body.
Hyperparathyroidism is caused by overactive parathyroid glands. Overactive parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormones, which in turn stimulate increased levels of calcium in the blood stream.
Hyperthyroidism means overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in too much thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by a glucose (blood sugar) level that is too low to effectively fuel the body’s blood cells.
Underactive parathyroid glands do not produce enough parathyroid hormones. This causes low levels of calcium in the blood.
Hypopituitarism, also called an underactive pituitary gland, is a condition that affects the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland – usually resulting in a partial or complete loss of functioning of that lobe.
Hypothyroidism is the condition in which the thyroid is underactive (i.e., it is producing an insufficient amount of thyroid hormones).
Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy
Hypothyroidism is a condition marked by an underactive thyroid gland and may occur during pregnancy
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
TP is a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Nephropathy
IgA nephropathy is a chronic kidney disease that may progress over a period of 10 to 20 years, and can lead to end-stage renal disease.
Impetigo is a superficial infection of the skin, caused by bacteria.
Impotence / Erectile Dysfunction
Impotence, or erectile dysfunction (ED), may result from the total inability to achieve erection, an inconsistent ability to achieve an erection or the ability to only sustain a brief erection.
Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a painful or burning feeling in the upper abdomen and is usually accompanied by nausea, bloating or gas, a feeling of fullness, and, sometimes, vomiting.
Ineffective Latch-On or Sucking
This condition occurs when a baby cannot effectively remove milk from the breast during breastfeeding, resulting in poor weight gain by the infant and reduced milk production by the mother.
Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint (synovial) fluid and joint tissues.
Infectious mononucleosis, also known as mononucleosis, “mono,” or glandular fever, is characterized by swollen lymph glands and chronic fatigue.
Infertility is defined by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) as a disease of the reproductive system that impairs the body’s ability to perform the basic function of reproduction.
Influenza (or flu) is a highly contagious viral respiratory tract infection.
An ingrown hair is a hair that curls and penetrates the skin with its tip, causing inflammation.
A hernia occurs when a section of intestine protrudes through a weakness in the abdominal muscles. A hernia that occurs in the groin area is called an inguinal hernia.
Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production
Most mothers worry at some point that they do not have enough milk. A delay in the time when milk “comes in” sometimes occurs in mothers dealing with certain health conditions.
Interstitial cystitis is inflammation of the tissues in the bladder wall, causing pain or discomfort in the bladder and abdomen.
Interstitial Lung Disease (Pulmonary Fibrosis)
Interstitial lung diseases are named after the tissue between the air sacs of the lungs called the interstitium – the tissue affected by fibrosis (scarring).
The most common cause of anemia is iron deficiency. Iron is needed to form hemoglobin.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal disorder that causes the following: crampy pain, gassiness, bloating, changes in bowel habits.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is a form of arthritis in children ages 16 or younger that causes inflammation and stiffness of joints for more than six weeks.
Keratosis pilaris is a common skin disorder characterized by small, pointed pimples.
Kidney Cancer (Condition)
Kidney cancer begins in the kidneys – two large, bean-shaped organs – one located to the left, and the other to the right of the backbone.
Kidney Stones (Condition)
A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms from crystallization of excreted substances in the urine.
Knee Pain and Problems
Many knee problems are a result of the aging process and continual wear and stress on the knee joint (i.e., arthritis). Other knee problems are a result of an injury or a
sudden movement that strains the knee.
A normal spine, when viewed from behind appears straight. However, a spine affected by kyphosis shows evidence of a forward curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in the upper back area, giving a “humpback” appearance.
Lactose intolerance is a condition caused by a lack of an enzyme called lactase, which, in turn, causes the body to be unable to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk products.
Landau-Kleffner syndrome (also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia or aphasia with convulsive disorder) is a language disorder characterized by the gradual or sudden loss of the ability to use or comprehend spoken language.
Laryngeal Cancer (Cancer of the Larynx)
Laryngeal cancer includes cancerous cells found in any part of the larynx – the glottis, the supraglottis, or the subglottis.
Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is characterized by pain in the back side of the elbow and forearm, along the thumb side when the arm is alongside the body with the thumb turned away. The pain is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm.
Some children and adults have an allergy or sensitivity to latex (rubber). Reactions can be seen when products made from latex come in contact with the person’s skin, mucous membranes (like the mouth, genitals, bladder or rectum), or the bloodstream (during surgery).
Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells, usually the white blood cells. Leukemic cells look different than normal cells and do not function properly.
The risk for breast cancer and many other forms of cancer is increased with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a genetic autosomal dominant cancer syndrome.
Ligament Injuries to the Knee
Ligament injuries to the knee include injuries to one of the four knee ligaments (elastic bands of tissue that connect bones to each other).
Tumors are abnormal masses of tissue that form when cells begin to reproduce at an increased rate. The liver can grow both non-cancerous (benign) and cancerous (malignant) tumors.
Low Back Pain
Low back pain can range from mild, dull, annoying pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the lower back. Pain in the lower back can restrict mobility and interfere with normal functioning.
Low Milk Production
A condition involving a delay in a mother’s ability to produce sufficient amounts of milk for her infant.
Lumbar Disc Disease (Herniated Disc)
Lumbar disc disease occurs in the lumbar area of the spine. As discs degenerate, fragments of the disc material can press on the nerve roots located just behind the disc space, causing pain, numbness or changes in sensation.
Lumbar Strain (Weight Lifter’s Back)
A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasm and feel sore.
Lung Cancer (Condition)
Lung cancer is cancer that usually starts in the lining of the bronchi (the main airways of the lungs), but can also begin in other areas of the respiratory system, including the trachea, bronchioles, or alveoli.
While most tick bites are harmless, several species can cause life-threatening diseases. Two of these well-known diseases are Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme disease.
Lymphedema Following a Mastectomy
When the normal drainage pattern in the lymph nodes is disturbed or damaged (such as during radiation or during surgery to remove lymph nodes), this may cause an abnormal collection of fluid that causes the arm to swell.
Major depression, also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression, is classified as a type of affective disorder or mood disorder that goes beyond the day’s ordinary ups and downs, becoming a serious medical condition and important health concern in this country.
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted person-to-person by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. These mosquitoes are present in the tropics and subtropics in almost all countries.
Male Factor Infertility
Male factor infertility is defined as any condition impacting sperm function and its ability to fertilize an egg.
Malocclusion refers to any degree of irregular contact of the teeth of the upper jaw with the teeth of the lower jaw, including overbites, underbites, and crossbites.
Manic Depression / Bipolar Disorder
Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, is classified as a type of affective disorder or mood disorder that goes beyond the day’s ordinary ups and downs, becoming a serious medical condition and important health concern in this country.
Mastalgia (Breast Pain)
Mastalgia is breast pain and is generally classified as either cyclical (associated with menstrual periods) or noncyclic.
Mastitis is often used interchangeably with the term breast infection, but mastitis may also be due to an inflammation. Often a reddened area is noted on the breast.
Measles is a viral illness characterized by a distinct rash and a fever.
Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer’s and Baseball Elbow)
Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer’s elbow, baseball elbow, suitcase elbow, or forehand tennis elbow, is characterized by pain from the elbow to the wrist on the palm side of the forearm.
Medical Conditions and Pregnancy
Certain medical conditions may complicate a pregnancy. However, with proper medical care, most women can enjoy a healthy pregnancy, despite their medical challenges.
Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia
Megaloblastic anemia is a type of anemia characterized by very large red blood cells.
Melanoma is a disease of the skin in which cancer cells are found in the melanocytes, the cells that produce color in the skin or pigment known as melanin.
Ménière’s disease is a balance disorder caused by an abnormality found in a section of the inner ear called the labyrinth.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain.
Menorrhagia is the most common type of abnormal uterine bleeding characterized by heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding.
Mental Health Disorders in Children and Teens
Many children and adolescents have mental health problems that interfere with their normal development and daily life activities. Some are mild, while others are more severe.
Merkel Cell Cancer
Merkel cell cancer is also known as neuroendocrine cancer of the skin, or trabecular cancer.
Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome significantly raises the risk
of developing diabetes, heart disease, and/or stroke.
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral valve prolapse, also known as click-murmur syndrome, Barlow’s syndrome, balloon mitral valve, or floppy valve syndrome, is the bulging of one or both of the mitral valve flaps (leaflets) into the left atrium during the contraction of the heart.
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral disease of the skin that causes small, pink or skin-colored bumps on the skin
Infectious mononucleosis, also known as mononucleosis, “mono,” or glandular fever, is characterized by swollen lymph glands and chronic fatigue.
Mood disorders are mental health problems that include all types of depression and bipolar disorder.
Some people call it a cold sore, others a fever blister, but this annoying and often painful chronic condition is caused by the same virus: herpes simplex.
Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy involving more than one fetus. Twins, triplets, quadruplets, and so on, are multiple pregnancies.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. It is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. It is an unpredictable condition that can be relatively
benign, disabling, or devastating.
Mumps is an acute and highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. Spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract, the disease usually takes two to three weeks to appear.
Muscular Contraction and Tension Headaches
Tension headaches are the most common type of headache. Stress and muscle tension are often factors in tension type headaches.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a broad term that describes a genetic (inherited) disorder of the muscles. Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a complex, autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy neuromuscular connections. This causes problems with the voluntary muscles of the body, especially the eyes, mouth, throat, and limbs.
Myeloma Bone Disease / Multiple Myeloma
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain white blood cells called plasma cells.
Narcolepsy is a chronic, neurological sleep disorder with no known cause. It involves the body’s central nervous system. Narcolepsy is a genetic disorder, but what causes narcolepsy is not yet known.
The neck is located between the head and the shoulders. Because of its location and range of motion, it is often left unprotected and subject to injury.
Nephrotic syndrome is a condition often characterized by the following: very high levels of protein in the urine, low levels of protein in the blood, swelling, especially around the eyes, feet, and hands, as well ashigh cholesterol.
Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of neurologic disorders that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin and skeletal bones.
The following problems are often associated with a neurogenic bladder: urine leakage, urine retention, damage to the tiny blood vessels in the kidney, and infection of the bladder or ureters.
Nightmares and Night Terrors
Nightmares are scary dreams that awaken children and make them afraid to go back to sleep. A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing or mumbling.
Nipple Problems and Discharge
Nipple conditions are a common benign breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation, while others are not. Like all breast conditions, any nipple problems should be reported to your physician for a prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Non-Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma, which is a cancer in the lymphatic system.
Being obese increases the risk for many diseases, especially heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder in which a person has an unreasonable thought, fear, or worry that he or she tries to manage through a ritualized activity to reduce the anxiety.
Occupational asthma is a type of asthma caused by exposure to inhaled irritants in the workplace. Symptoms may disappear when the irritants that caused the asthma are avoided.
Occupational Lung Diseases
Repeated and long-term exposure to certain irritants on the job can lead to an array of lung diseases that may have lasting effects, even after exposure ceases.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavior disorder, usually diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by uncooperative, defiant, negativistic, irritable, and annoying behaviors toward parents, peers, teachers, and other authority figures.
Oral Cancer (Condition)
Oral cancer is cancer found in the oral cavity (the mouth area) and the oropharynx (the throat area at the back of the mouth).
Osteoarthritis is a chronic, degenerative, joint disease characterized by the breakdown of joint cartilage and adjacent bone in the neck, lower back, knees, hips and/or fingers.
Also called osteocartilaginous exostoses, osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone near the end of the bone near the growth plate.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle-bone disease, is a genetic (inherited) disorder characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue that is usually the result of an infection.
Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone tissue, causing weakening of the bones in the hips, spine and wrists.
Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in the osteoblast cells that form the outer covering of bone.
Other Bacterial Skin Infections
The following are other common bacterial skin infections: Erysipelas, Erythrasma, Impetigo, and Paronychia.
Other Benign Skin Growths
As a person grows older and is exposed to sunlight, the skin changes. Most people have some skin marks, such as freckles and moles, which may multiply or darken over time.
Other Dermatitis Conditions
The following are some of the other common dermatitis conditions: localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis.
Other Liver Disorders
An autoimmune disorder is any reaction or attack of a person’s immune system against its own organs and tissues.
Other Types of Skin Cancer: Kaposi’s Sarcoma
Kaposi’s sarcoma is a skin cancer that starts in the skin’s blood vessels. Kaposi’s sarcoma comes in two forms: a slow-growing form, and a more aggressive, faster-spreading form.
Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant cells are found in an ovary.
Ovarian Cancer and Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC)
The risk for ovarian cancer is increased with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), an autosomal dominant cancer genetic syndrome.
Overactive Adrenal Glands / Cushing’s Syndrome
When adrenal glands produce excessive amounts of certain hormones, they are called “overactive.”
Paget’s Disease of the Bone
Paget’s disease of the bone is a chronic bone disorder in which bones become enlarged and deformed. Bone may become dense, but fragile, because of excessive breakdown and deformation of bone.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the US. Pancreatic cancer occurs when malignant cells grow out of control.
Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas. The inflammation may be sudden (acute) or ongoing (chronic).
Panic disorder is characterized by chronic, repeated, and unexpected panic attacks – bouts of overwhelming fear of being in danger when there is no specific cause for the fear
A parathyroid tumor is a growth inside a parathyroid gland. Parathyroid tumors may cause increased levels of parathyroid hormones secreted by the parathyroid glands, leading to hyperparathyroidism.
Parkinson’s Disease (Condition)
Parkinson’s disease (PD or, simply, Parkinson’s) is a slowly progressing, degenerative disease that is associated with symptoms such as tremor or trembling of the arms, jaw, legs and face, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), postural instability or impaired balance and coordination.
Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper’s Knee)
Patellar tendonitis, also known as jumper’s knee, is a condition caused by inflammation of the tendon connecting the kneecap to the shin bone, often caused by overuse of the knee joint.
Patellofemoral Stress Syndrome (Runner’s Knee)
Patellofemoral stress syndrome is a condition common among runners involving knee pain caused by irritation of the cartilage of the kneecap.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Caused by a certain type of bacteria, pelvic inflammatory disease results in pelvic pain and the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy (a fertilized egg becoming implanted outside the uterus).
Pelvic pain may originate in genital or extragenital organs in and around the pelvis, or it may be psychological, which can make pain feel worse or actually cause a sensation of pain, when no physical problem is present.
Two of the more common pelvic problems include pelvic fractures and osteitis pubis.
Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart
Perimenopause refers to the transitional period of time before menstruation actually stops, which is marked by changes in the menstrual cycle, along with other physical and emotional symptoms.
Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, are serious bacterial infections that destroy the gums and the surrounding tissues of the mouth.
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a slow and progressive circulation disorder. It may involve disease in any of the blood vessels outside of the heart and diseases of the lymph vessels – the arteries, veins, or lymphatic vessels.
Peritonitis is an infection caused by an inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, known as the peritoneum.
Persons with a personality disorder display more rigid and maladaptive thinking and reacting behaviors that often disrupt their personal, professional, and social lives.
The risk for breast and ovarian cancer is increased with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), a rare early-onset autosomal dominant disorder, associated with specific physical characteristics in addition to increased cancer risks.
Peyronie’s disease is characterized by a plaque, or hard lump, that forms on the erection tissue of the penis.
Pharyngitis / Tonsillitis
Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections in the throat that cause inflammation
According to the American Psychiatric Association, a phobia is an uncontrollable, irrational, and persistent fear of a specific object, situation, or activity.
Although rare, most pituitary tumors are not cancerous (benign), comprising only 7 percent of brain tumors. However, most pituitary tumors will press against the optic nerves, causing vision problems.
Pityriasis rosea is a mild, but common, skin condition characterized by scaly, pink, inflamed skin, which can last from four to eight weeks and usually leaves no lasting marks.
Plugged Milk Ducts
A plugged duct feels like a tender lump in the breast.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemical irritants.
Poison Ivy / Poison Oak
There are three native American plants that collectively may be called poison ivy: poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.
Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by three types of poliovirus.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the kidneys.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
Polycystic ovarian syndrome involves two of the following: lack of ovulation for an extended period of time, high levels of male hormones or small ovarian cysts.
Polycythemia vera is a rare blood disorder in which there is an increase in all blood cells, particularly red blood cells.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that often follows a terrifying physical or emotional event – causing the person who survived the event to have persistent, frightening thoughts and memories, or flashbacks, of the ordeal.
One particular postpartum complication is postpartum thyroiditis, a condition characterized by an inflamed thyroid gland.
A pregnancy is divided into three phases, called trimesters. Each trimester has its own significant milestones.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
A much more severe form of the collective symptoms known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a chronic medical condition that requires attention and treatment.
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
Most women experience some unpleasant or uncomfortable symptoms during their menstrual cycle.
Prickly heat is a skin rash caused by trapped sweat under the skin.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder in which one (or more) of the parathyroid glands produces too much parathyroid hormone, which can result in the loss of bone tissue.
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension is a lung disorder in which the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery rises far above normal levels.
Prostate Cancer (Condition)
Prostate cancer is a malignant growth in the prostate (a sex gland in men found below the bladder and in front of the rectum).
There are clinical conditions of the prostate gland that are not cancer, including the following: prostatism, prostatitis, prostatalgia, benign prostatic hyperplasia (Also called BPH or benign prostatic hypertrophy.), impotence (Also called erectile dysfunction) and urinary incontinence).
Prostatitis is one of several benign (non-cancerous), inflamed conditions of the prostate gland.
Pseudocysts of the Pancreas
Pseudocysts of the pancreas are abnormal collections of fluid, dead tissue, pancreatic enzymes, and blood that can lead to a painful mass in the pancreas.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition characterized by inflamed, red, raised areas that often develop as silvery scales on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back.
Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis associated with psoriasis, a chronic skin and nail disease characterized by red, scaly rashes and thick, pitted fingernails.
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot that develops in a blood vessel elsewhere in the body (most commonly from the leg), travels to an artery in the lung, and forms an occlusion (blockage) of the artery.
Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which alveoli, or air sacs, may be destroyed, narrowed, collapsed, stretched or over-inflated.
Sarcoidosis is a rare disease that results from inflammation.
Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, can become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body
Raynaud’s phenomenon or, simply, Raynaud’s, is a disorder characterized by decreased blood flow – usually to the fingers, and less frequently to the ears, toes, nipples, knees, or nose.
Reactive Arthritis (Reiter’s Syndrome)
eactive arthritis, also known as Reiter’s syndrome, is a type of arthritis that occurs as a reaction to an infection somewhere in the body.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder that is caused by gastric acid flowing from the stomach into the esophagus.
Renal Vascular Disease
Renal vascular disease is the name given to a variety of complications that affect the arteries and veins of the kidneys.
Repetitive Motion Injury
Repetitive motion injuries, also called repetitive stress injuries, are temporary or permanent injuries to muscles, nerves, ligaments, and tendons caused by performing the same motion over and over again.
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sleep disorder in which a person experiences unpleasant sensations in the legs.
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever.
Rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic, autoimmune disease, is the most crippling form of arthritis and affects approximately 2.1 million Americans.
Rhinitis is a reaction that occurs in the eyes, nose and throat when airborne irritants (allergens) trigger the release of histamine.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is an infection caused by the bite of an infected tick.
Characterized by redness, pimples and broken blood vessels, rosacea is a common skin condition that usually only affects the face and eyes.
Roseola is a viral illness that results in a viral exanthem.
Rotator Cuff Injury
An injury to the rotator cuff, such as a tear, may happen suddenly when falling on an outstretched hand or develop over time due to repetitive activities.
Rubella (German Measles)
Rubella, sometimes called German measles, is an acute viral infection that causes a mild illness in children and slightly more severe illness in adults.
Salmonella infections are diarrheal infections caused by the bacteria Salmonella.
Scabies is an infestation of mites (tiny insects) characterized by small, red bumps and intense itching.
A scar is the body’s natural way of healing and replacing lost or damaged skin.
Schizophrenia is one of the most complex of all mental health disorders. It involves a severe, chronic, and disabling disturbance of the brain.
Sciatica, also known as lumbar radiculopathy, is a pain that originates along the sciatic nerve, which extends from the back of the pelvis down the back of the thigh.
Scleroderma, also called systemic sclerosis, is a chronic, degenerative disease that affects the joints, skin, and internal organs.
A spine affected by scoliosis shows evidence of a lateral, or sideways, curvature, and a rotation of the back bones (vertebrae), giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is a mood disorder characterized by depression related to a certain season of the year – especially winter.
Sebaceous cysts are harmless, slow-growing bumps under the skin, often appearing on the scalp, face, ears, back, or groin area.
Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammation of the upper layers of skin, characterized by red, itchy skin that sheds scales.
Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having seizures.
Septicemia is the clinical name for blood poisoning.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a rapidly spreading, potentially fatal infectious viral disease.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Sexually transmitted diseases are infectious diseases transmitted through sexual contact.
Shin splints are pains at the front of the lower legs caused by exercise, often after a period of inactivity.
Shingles (Herpes Zoster)
Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a common viral infection of the nerves, which results in a painful rash of small blisters on an area of skin anywhere on the body.
Dislocation of the shoulder means the displacement of the upper arm bone (humerus) out of the shoulder joint.
Shoulder Pain and Problems
Common shoulder problems include the following: dislocation, separation, bursitis, impingement syndrome, tendonitis, rotator cuff tear, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), and fracture.
Tendonitis of the shoulder is an inflammation of the rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon.
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by defective hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).
Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses near the nose. These infections usually occur after a cold or after an allergic inflammation.
Skin Cancer (Condition)
Skin cancer is a malignant tumor that grows in the skin cells and accounts for more than 50 percent of all cancers.
Skin Pigment Disorders
Skin color is determined by a pigment (melanin) made by specialized cells in the skin (melanocytes). Some disorders which affect skin color are: albinism, melasma, pigment loss after skin damage, and vitiligo.
Sleep apnea is a serious breathing disorder that causes brief interruptions of breathing during sleep.
Snoring is the sound that occurs during sleep when flow of air is obstructed in the area where the tongue and upper throat meet the soft palate and uvula.
Many activities can lead to soft-tissue damage of muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
Sore nipples are probably the most common difficulty mothers have when breastfeeding.
Spasmodic dysphonia, also called laryngeal dystonia, is a voice disorder. It is characterized by involuntary spasms or movements in the muscles of the larynx, which causes the voice to break, and have a tight, strained, or strangled sound.
Spinal Cord Injury (Condition)
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to a traumatic injury that can either result in a bruise (also called a contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (called a transection) in the spinal cord.
Sprains and Strains
The majority of sports injuries are caused by minor trauma involving muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons, including contusions (bruises), sprains and strains.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous cell skin cancer (sometimes referred to as non-melanoma carcinoma) may appear as nodules, or as red, scaly patches of skin.
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a response to a staphylococcal infection and is characterized by peeling skin.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer that starts in any part of the stomach.
Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers (Peptic Ulcers)
An ulcer is an open sore, or lesion, usually found on the skin or mucous membrane areas of the body.
Stress fractures are weak spots or small cracks in the bone caused by continuous overuse.
Stroke, also called brain attack, occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted.
Stuttering, sometimes referred to as stammering or diffluent speech, is a speech disorder.
Substance Abuse / Chemical Dependency
There are three different terms used to define substance-related disorders, including substance abuse, substance dependence, and chemical dependence.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Multiple Pregnancy
Symptoms of multiple pregnancy may include: uterus is larger than expected for the dates in pregnancy, increased morning sickness, increased appetite, excessive weight gain – especially in early pregnancy, or fetal movements felt in different parts of abdomen at same time.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)
Systemic lupus erythematosus, also known as SLE, or simply lupus, involves periodic episodes of inflammation of and damage to the joints, tendons, other connective tissues, and organs, including the heart, lungs, blood vessels, brain, kidneys and skin.
Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD)
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are disorders of the jaw muscles, temporomandibular joints, and/or the nerves associated with chronic facial pain.
Two major problems associated with tendons include tendonitis and tenosynovitis.
Cancer that develops in a testicle is called testicular cancer.
Tetanus is an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system, caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium, which usually enters the body through an open wound.
Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues in the body).
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm
A thoracic aortic aneurysm, also called TAA, is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the aorta (the largest artery in the body), resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning greater than 50 percent of the normal diameter (width).
Thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterized by the production of too many platelets in the bone marrow.
Thrombosis occurs when clots obstruct veins (blood vessels that carry blood from the body back into the heart) or arteries (blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body).
Thyroid Disorders in Women
The thyroid gland, which plays an important role in the body’s metabolism, secretes several hormones: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin.
Thyroid tumors are either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous) growths.
Tinea Infections (Ringworm)
Different fungi, depending on their location on the body, cause ringworm. Ringworm is characterized by ring-shaped, red, scaly patches with clearing centers.
Different fungi, depending on their location on the body, cause ringworm. Ringworm is characterized by ring-shaped, red, scaly patches with clearing centers.
Tonsillitis refers to the inflammation of a tonsil – the large, fleshy, oval masses of tissue that lie in the lateral wall of the oral pharynx on either side of the throat.
Meniscus tears can occur during a rotating movement while bearing weight, such as when twisting the upper leg while the foot stays in one place during sports and other activities.
Torticollis, also known as wryneck, is a twisting of the neck that causes the head to rotate and tilt at an odd angle.
Tourette’s disorder (TD), sometimes called Tourette’s syndrome (TS), is a neurological disorder characterized by multiple repeated tics.
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life-threatening skin disorder characterized by a blistering and peeling of the skin. This disorder can be caused by a drug reaction – frequently antibiotics or anticonvulsives.
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) describes a cluster of symptoms that involve many systems of the body.
Traveler’s diarrhea is a term used to describe the diarrhea caused by infection with bacteria, protozoa, or viruses ingested by consuming food or water that has been contaminated.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial infection that usually infects the lungs, although other organs are sometimes involved.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including the following: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), juvenile diabetes, brittle diabetes, and sugar diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body’s inability to make enough, or to properly use, insulin.
Types of Muscular Dystrophy and Neuromuscular Diseases
Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue, with or without the breakdown of nerve tissue.
Types of Skin Conditions (Laser surgery for skin conditions)
There are many different types of lesions and skin conditions that can be treated with laser surgery.
Typhoid fever is a life-threatening bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi).
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease in which the inner lining of the large intestine (colon or bowel) and rectum become inflamed.
Underactive Adrenal Glands / Addison’s Disease
Addison’s disease is the result of an underactive adrenal gland.
Urinary incontinence is the loss of urine control or the inability to hold your urine until you reach the restroom.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections describe a health problem that results from a bacterial infection along the urinary tract.
Urticaria / Hives
Urticaria, or hives, is a condition in which red, itchy, and swollen areas appear on the skin – usually as an allergic reaction from eating certain foods or taking certain medicines.
Cancers that occur in each part of the uterus have their own names, such as cervical cancer or endometrial cancer, but are sometimes broadly defined as uterine cancer because the structure is part of the uterus.
Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system.
Cancer of the vagina, a rare kind of cancer in women, is a disease in which malignant cells are found in the tissues of the vagina.
Vaginitis refers to any inflammation or infection of the vagina.
Varicose veins are enlarged veins that are visible through the skin and may appear as blue or purple twisted, knot-like cords.
Vascular Headaches and Migraines
This throbbing type of headache is distinguished by the fact that symptoms other than pain occur with the headache.
Vesicoureteral reflux occurs when urine dwelling in the bladder flows back into the ureters and often back into the kidneys.
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) is a term that refers to a group of illnesses caused by several distinct families of viruses.
Viral Hepatitis Overview
Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction.
Vulvar cancer is a malignancy that can occur on any part of the external organs, but most often affects the labia majora or labia minora.
Vulvitis is simply an inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina.
Warts are non-cancerous skin growths caused by the papillomavirus.
West Nile Virus
West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes that causes symptoms such as abdominal and back pain, diarrhea, fever or nausea.
Whiplash is an injury to the neck caused by the neck bending forcibly forward and then backward, or vice versa.
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
Caused by a bacterium, whooping cough is characterized by paroxysms (intense fits or spells) of coughing that end with the characteristic whoop as air is inhaled.
Yellow fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.